Frequently Asked Questions

This list of questions and answers is probably far from exhaustive, so if you have a question that isn't answered here, email David Pike and/or Stuart Pike at dapike@mun.ca or cocostu@spamex.com. Although we coordinate this project as volunteers, we are usually quick to respond to inquiries.

Questions of a more advanced nature are presented on a separate page for technical questions.


What else can I do once I have my test results?

For more information on what can be done once you have your Y-DNA test results, please refer to this webpage.


What is this project about?

The basic idea behind the project is to use genetic analysis to assist with Pike genealogy. By comparing the genetic signatures for various Pike family lines we can find out which ones are related, and which are not (regardless of whether correponding historical records are available). It's on the "Test Results" page that we display which family lines have been shown to be connected to one another.


Which bit of DNA is tested?

We are primarily relying on analysis of the male Y-chromosome, which is usually passed intact from father to son (typically along with the Pike name). Therefore each man's Y-DNA signature should be identical (or substantially similar) to that of all of the other men who share a direct paternal ancestor with him.

In contrast, we are not using DNA from the many other chromosomes that are unique to any one person. Our goal is to hone in on just the DNA that is shared throughout an extended family.


In what ways might this help with Pike genealogy?

The utility of DNA testing is that it allows those who are tested to compare their results against each other, thereby enabling them to determine whether or not they are related via their paternal lines. This in turns allows several types of hypotheses to be put to the test. Here are a few examples that might help to illustrate some of the possibilities:

Example 1:

Two people have DNA results that aren't even a close match. In this case, they learn, with certainty, that their paternal lines are unrelated. They now know not to waste time or money in trying to discover the elusive connection between their Pike families, since their DNA tells them that there isn't any connection to be found.

For a real instance of this type of scenario, consider David (kit 23996) and Richard (kit 88850). David's ancestry (shown here) is believed to go back to Poole, Dorset, while Richard's (shown here) goes back to Shapwick and Pimperne, both within 15 miles of Poole. However, as shown on our "Test Results" page, David and Richard have substantially different genetic profiles: not even one of their first 12 DNA markers are the same! We can therefore conclude with certainty that David and Richard do not share a common paternal ancestor.

But what if people who don't match each other genetically thought they were related? Then maybe the relationship isn't in their direct Pike lineage. Or maybe one of them has made a mistake in tracing his/her lineage. Or maybe what's often called a non-paternal event has occurred, such as an adoption that might not be accurately reflected in the historical records (see near the bottom of this page for more on non-paternal events).

In the case of David and Richard, it had been speculated that such an event might have happened. In particular, note that Richard's 2xgreat grandfather Charles was born just 5 weeks after the marriage of his parents, which led to the question: although Charles got his Pike surname from his mother's husband, did Charles' mother marry Charles' biological father?

This question has since been settled, thanks to DNA results from Marc (kit 128336). Marc and Richard both trace their Pike ancestry back to a common forefather that lived before Richard's 2xgreat grandfather Charles. Given that Marc and Richard's DNA is a perfect 37-marker match, we are now confident that Richard's 2xgreat grandfather Charles was indeed legitimate.

Example 2:

Two people have Y-DNA signatures that are a perfect match. Provided that they tested enough markers, then they are afforded a strong degree of confidence that they share a common forefather, although they may not have any idea who he was or when he lived. In cases where those who match had previously been strangers, they can then share their genealogical research with each other to try to find out who their common forefather was, where he lived, etc.
For a real example, consider David (kit 98682) and Jerry (kit 109431). David in South Africa and Jerry in the USA were strangers that turned out to be long-lost cousins who were reunited thanks to DNA testing. As can be seen in "Group 4" on our "Test Results" page, their DNA results are a perfect 25-marker match.

As it happens, David's ancestor William left Nottingham in 1820 to settle in South Africa. Meanwhile, Jerry had traced his Pike line backwards in time from the USA to Canada and then to England, where the trail got stuck with a John Pike who had lived in the village of Wilford in Nottingham, but whose place of origin was not known. This is where the pieces of the puzzle came together: not only is Wilford a mere six miles from Keyworth, but Jerry's ancestor John was David's ancestor William's younger brother!

But what if two people are a close match on just 12 markers? Trying to tell whether such matches indicate a bona fide relationship can be a bit less certain and depends on several factors, such as how common or rare their particular genetic signature is.
As one example, let's consider Gary (kit 117096) and Roger (kit 50318), with respective ancestry from Wiltshire and Hampshire. As can be seen in "Group 1" on our "Test Results" page, their first 12 markers match on only 9 markers, which would usually be too poor of a match to suggest that a relationship is likely. However, they have the benefit of belonging to a somewhat rare genetic cluster: not only is their R1a haplogroup a bit uncommon in the general population, but their particular marker combinations (which are what make up their genetic signatures) are also rare. It is also helps us to know that there is a chain of Pikes with intermediate genetic signatures: Gary and Allen (kit 33139) are an 11/12 match, next Allen and John (kit 24697) are an 11/12 match, and then John and Roger are an 11/12 match. Moreover, some of these matches are seen to be very good matches at the level of 25, 37, or 67 markers. So despite Gary and Roger only matching on 9 out of 12 markers, we have good confidence that they are indeed related.

In constrast, if we consider Bryan (kit 28606) and Drake (kit 70672), we have a different outcome. Bryan and Drake both have Pike ancestry that has been traced back to colonial Maine in the 1700s. Given also that they matched on 11 out of the first 12 markers, we had thought that they were probably related. However, they each had several non-Pike genetic matches, indicating a somewhat common genetic signature that might be obscuring the situation. With the extra precision of 25 markers, the situation was still a bit ambiguous, but finally at 37 markers we were able to reach a conclusion: they match on only 25 out of 37 markers, which is too few for them to share a common paternal ancestor within a genealogical timeframe (i.e., within the past 500 or so years). In short, Bryan and Drake are from unrelated Pike families.


 
 
Where does the Pike name come from?

In the British Isles, the Pike surname is widespread, occurring not just in England but also in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and the Channel Islands. That said, the name seems to have been most common in the west country of England, especially in the counties of Devon, Somerset and Wiltshire. To the right you will see a map showing the distribution of the Pike surname in Great Britain at the time of the 1881 census (this map was provided by RootsMap.com).

Among the earliest known Pike references include Aelfric Pike (who is listed in Devon in the Domesday Book of 1086) and Sir Richard Pike (who lived in Somerset in the early 1300s).

On our project's "Test Results" page you will find another map of the British Isles, showing where the Pike families involved in our DNA project have traced their earliest known origins. Shown on this map is a collection of green pushpins (all with the number 1 on them) along the border between Wiltshire and Hampshire, and reaching into Berkshire. The Pike family that these particular pushpins represent (namely "Group 1" on our "Test Results" page) is one of the largest and oldest Pike families that we have come across. Not only do about 25% of our project members belong to this genetic group, but we know of two branches of the family that can be separately traced back to the late 1500s without yet connecting to each other. Lucky for us, the genetic signature for this particular group is somewhat rare, and we can usually confirm whether somebody is a member of this family with just a 12-marker test (although we still recommend testing 37 markers in general).


Can people with variants of the Pike surname participate in this project?

Yes, all variants of the Pike surname are welcome within our project. In addition to Pike, we also have the surnames Pyke and McPike represented in the project, as well as Speight (which we have discovered may in fact be a variant of Pike).


Can women participate? And what about people who are not Pikes themselves but have Pike ancestors or relatives?

Yes women can participate, but only males can provide the required DNA sample (because only males carry a Y-chromosome). Female Pikes who want to participate will have to get an appropriate male relative (such as a father, brother, nephew, uncle, etc.) to donate a cheek swab of DNA. It's actually fairly common for women to participate in projects such as ours (often a sister or wife is the family genealogist, while a brother or husband is the DNA provider).

Likewise, if you are not a Pike by birth, but you have some Pike ancestors or relatives, you would have to locate a living male Pike to provide a DNA sample.

Keep in mind that the Y-chromosome is passed only from father to son, so those men who provide DNA samples ought to have direct Pike paternity (i.e., their father's father's ... father's father should have been a Pike). Since a son typically inherits his surname (as well as his Y-chromosome) from his biological father, the men with the bit of DNA that we are looking for usually have the surname Pike.

We understand that some Pike genetic lines might have originated with an adoption, an illigitimate birth, or some other circumstance. All Pike lineages, regardless of how they began, are welcome within our project.


What about other kinds of DNA tests?

In 2010 FamilyTreeDNA began offering a "Family Finder" DNA test that scans genetic markers from throughout a person's genome. By then identifying people that share some DNA segments with you, it is possible to find genealogical connections from throughout your ancestry. Some more information about this test can be found here. Note that this test can be taken by anybody, whether male or female. To order this test, click here and then select "Family Finder" from the list of available DNA tests. Family Tree DNA is also able to test a person's mitochondrial DNA for genealogical purposes.


Are there any geographic restrictions on participation?

No, it doesn't matter where you or your ancestors lived. It also doesn't matter what ethnic background(s) your ancestors might have had. Pikes everywhere are welcome to get involved.

To further emphasise that our project is global in scope, it's worth noting that we currently have participants from the following countries: Australia, Canada, England, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, South Africa, Thailand, the USA and Wales.


Who does the genetic analysis?

The genetic analysis that is done by FamilyTreeDNA in their accredited lab in Houston, Texas.


Is there a cost to participate?

Yes, somebody has to pay for the DNA analysis to be done. For details about costs, etc., please consult the "How to Join" page.

When we are able, we provide sponsorships to help offset some of the testing costs, particularly for newcomers to our project who are from previously untested family lines. Information about sponsorships is located on the bottom half of the "How to Join" page. Donations towards such sponsorships are always welcome (click here for details on how to make a contribution).

Please note that neither David nor Stuart receive any form of payment, commission, etc., for recommending the services of FamilyTreeDNA. Despite being zealous about genetic genealogy, we're both just volunteers.


How is the DNA sample collected?

Anybody who might be worried about needles can relax, since the DNA test is easy, painless, and a blood sample is not required. The DNA sample itself is collected by brushing the inside of a person's cheek with two or three swabs that are provided with the test kit. These swabs are kind of like cotton Q-tips, except that they have felt-like padding that detaches into a little vial after you use it to scrape some cheek cells out of your mouth. To see a picture of what the test kit actually looks like, take a look at this webpage at FamilyTreeDNA. To see photos of a fellow in the Dorsey Surname DNA Project taking the test, go to this webpage (which is the first page in a sequence of pages of photos). You can also click here to watch a video of a fellow going through the process of taking the DNA test.


Is it possible to determine if my Pike line has native American ancestry?

Maybe. If you take a look at the "Test Results" page, you'll see that there is a Haplogroup Prediction for each set of test results. Certain haplogroups (especially haplogroups C, O, and Q) are usually indicative of native American ancestry along the direct paternal ancestral line. More information about Y-DNA haplogroups is located on the page for technical questions.

As of 01 January 2009, all but one of our test results were consistent with European ancestry. The one exception is for a fellow with African origins.

Native American ancestry that is not in your direct male line would not be detected by the Y-DNA tests being done for the Pike Surname DNA Project. For native American ancestry elsewhere in your pedigree, you might want to consider either mtDNA testing or the "Family Finder" DNA test.


What are non-paternal events?

The term non-paternal event has come to refer to any instance in which a male child ended up with a surname that is different than his biological father's surname. Another similar term is mis-attributed paternity.

Such events most frequently occurred as the result of adoption or instances in which a son took his mother's surname (typically when the mother was unwed). If a boy's mother was recently widowed, it could also be that the newborn son might take the surname of his mother's next husband (i.e., the boy's step-father). In some cases, grown men have been known to change their surname, for instance as a condition of receiving an inheritance from their wives' relatives, as is known to have happened with the Pike, Tweed and Crouch families of Meldreth in Cambridgeshire. Finally, infidelity may also be a factor.

However a non-paternal might have event occurred, the consequence is that some living members of the Pike family actually carry a Y-chromosome that at some point in the past belonged to some other family name. Similarly, there are men out there today whose surname is not Pike, but who carry a Y-chromosome that originally came from a Pike forefather. People in either situation are welcome to join our project.

How can I guard against non-paternal events?

Well, you can't prevent them from having already happened, so the real question is what can you do to make sure that you detect them when they did happen. The trick here is to get various people, from different parts of your family tree, to get tested. As a hypothetical example, suppose John traces his Pike lineage back to his 5xgreat grandfather Andrew, via Andrew's son Jack. John has been able to locate a living cousin named Ernest who is descended from Jack's brother Elias. If John and Ernest's DNA samples match, then they can be confident that there are no non-paternal events between them and their forefather Andrew. If a non-paternal event has happened, then determining when it occurred is pretty much the same as trying to find out when a mutation occurred (see the technical questions for more details, as well as the ISOGG page on solving NPE roadblocks).

Incidentally, we are aware of a number of cases of illegitimacy within the Pike family already, such as:

Cases like these can unexpectedly be found in more recent generations too.

Here are some additional links that discuss some aspects of non-paternal events:


What's the history of this project?

A summary of some key events is listed below. Past announcements, etc., can be viewed at the archives for the PIKE-DNA-L mailing list.

27 July 2004 Our project was started.
28 September 2004 Our very first test results came out.
12 October 2004 Our second set of 12-marker results came out, showing no relationship between the first two participants.
06 November 2004 Our 5th participant joined.
01 January 2005 There are now 8 participants, with test results available for 3 of them.
The PIKE-DNA-L mailing list was set up at RootsWeb.com
16 January 2005 We got our first close 25-marker match, with two participants having 24 out of 25 markers in common.
26 January 2005 Our 10th participant joined.
04 March 2005 Our first perfect 25-marker match occurred (between Roy and Earl, who already knew they were 10th cousins).
08 April 2005 Our 15th participant joined, and the first set of 37-marker results came out.
18 April 2005 Our project's second perfect 25-marker match occurred (between Allen and his cousins Roy and Earl).
19 November 2005 Our 20th participant joined.
01 January 2006 There are now 23 participants, with test results available for 20 of them.
24 January 2006 Our 25th participant joined.
13 February 2006 Our project's third perfect 25-marker match occurred (this time between two people who had no prior reason to suspect a relationship).
22 March 2006 Our 30th participant joined.
Our project's fourth perfect 25-marker match occurred (this time between two participants with Newfoundland ancestry).
27 April 2006 Our 35th participant joined.
07 July 2006 Our 40th participant joined.
14 August 2006 Our 45th participant joined.
30 August 2006 Stuart Pike became a co-administrator for our project.
14 September 2006 Our fifth perfect 25-marker match occurred.
10 October 2006 Our 50th participant joined.
12 October 2006 Our sixth perfect 25-marker match occurred.
27 October 2006 Our seventh perfect 25-marker match occurred.
30 October 2006 Our eighth perfect 25-marker match occurred.
15 November 2006 Our 55th participant joined.
28 December 2006 Our 60th participant joined.
01 January 2007 We now have 60 participants, living in 7 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 50 test results on hand, 17 have no genetic matches within our project.
Another 17 all match each other and comprise a large extended family.
The remainder of the results fall into one of 6 other groups of matching results.
Globally, we have now found 22 genetically distinct Pike family lines.
In the British Isles, we have so far found 4 genetically different family lines.
24 January 2007 Our 9th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
05 February 2007 Our 10th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
18 March 2007 Our 65th participant joined.
10 May 2007 Our 11th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
04 June 2007 Our 70th participant joined.
11 June 2007 Our first perfect 67-marker match occurred. It's also our first perfect 37-marker match.
03 July 2007 Our 75th participant joined.
07 August 2007 Our 80th participant joined.
27 August 2007 Our 12th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
30 October 2007 Our 13th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
31 October 2007 Our 85th participant joined.
01 January 2008 We now have 86 participants, living in 7 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 83 test results on hand, 26 have no genetic matches within our project.
Another 22 all match each other and comprise a large extended family (see our "Group 1").
The remainder of the results fall into one of 9 other groups of matching results.
Globally, we have now found 33 genetically distinct Pike family lines.
In the British Isles, we have so far found 13 genetically different family lines.
08 January 2008 Our 14th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
05 February 2008 Our 15th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
11 March 2008 Our 90th participant joined.
22 March 2008 Our 16th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
23 April 2008 Our 95th participant joined.
06 June 2008 Our 17th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
25 August 2008 Our 100th participant joined.
01 October 2008 Our 18th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
10 October 2008 Our second perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 19th perfect 25-marker match.
06 November 2008 Our 20th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
10 November 2008 Our 110th participant joined.
24 November 2008 Our 21st perfect 25-marker match occurred.
03 December 2008 Our 22nd perfect 25-marker match occurred.
17 December 2008 Our third perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 23rd perfect 25-marker match.
01 January 2009 We now have 113 participants, living in 9 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 105 test results on hand, 28 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 77 results fall into one of 13 groups of matching results; 29 of these results comprise a large extended family (see our "Group 1").
Globally, we have now found 39 genetically distinct Pike family lines.
In the British Isles, we have so far found 15 genetically different family lines.
23 February 2009 Our 24th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
24 February 2009 Our 4th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 25th perfect 25-marker match.
11 March 2009 Our 5th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 26th perfect 25-marker match.
11 June 2009 Our 120th participant joined.
17 September 2009 Our 27th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
23 September 2009 Our 28th and 29th perfect 25-marker matches occurred.
29 September 2009 Our 6th perfect 37-marker match occurred.
03 November 2009 Our 130th participant joined.
12 December 2009 Our 30th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
01 January 2010 We now have 136 participants, living in 10 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 128 test results on hand, 29 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 99 results fall into one of 17 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 32 matching test results.
The second largest groups are "Group 2" and "Group 6", each with 10 matching test results.
Globally, we have now found at least 46 genetically distinct Pike family lines.
In the British Isles, we have so far found 18 genetically different family lines.
08 January 2010 Our 7th and 8th perfect 37-marker matches occurred. They are also our 31st and 32nd perfect 25-marker matches.
12 January 2010 Our 33rd perfect 25-marker match occurred.
23 March 2010 Our 140th participant joined.
23 April 2010 Our 34th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
19 May 2010 Our 9th and 10th perfect 37-marker matches occurred. They are also our 35th and 36th perfect 25-marker matches.
12 August 2010 Our 11th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 37th perfect 25-marker match.
27 September 2010 Our 150th participant joined.
20 October 2010 Our 38th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
01 January 2011 We now have 156 participants, living in 10 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 145 test results on hand, 30 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 115 results fall into one of 19 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 34 matching test results.
The second largest groups are "Group 2" and "Group 6", each with 11 matching test results.
Globally, we have now found at least 50 genetically distinct Pike family lines.
In the British Isles, we have so far found 21 genetically different family lines.
02 March 2011 Our 39th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
10 March 2011 Our 40th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
15 April 2011 Our 12th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 41st perfect 25-marker match.
26 April 2011 Our 160th participant joined.
13 June 2011 Our 13th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 42nd perfect 25-marker match.
25 July 2011 Our 170th participant joined.
22 August 2011 Our 43rd perfect 25-marker match occurred.
14 September 2011 Our 14th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 44th perfect 25-marker match.
29 October 2011 Our 45th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
10 November 2011 Our 15th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 46th perfect 25-marker match.
01 January 2012 We now have 174 participants, living in 10 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 161 Y-DNA test results on hand, 34 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 127 results fall into one of 20 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 37 matching test results.
The second largest groups are "Group 6", "Group 2" and "Group 8", with 13, 12 and 11 matching test results, respectively.
Globally, we have now found at least 51 genetically distinct Pike family lines.
In the British Isles, we have so far found 24 genetically different family lines.
21 February 2012 Our second perfect 67-marker match occurred. It's also our 16th perfect 37-marker match and our 47th perfect 25-marker match.
29 February 2012 Our 48th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
07 September 2012 Our 17th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 49th perfect 25-marker match.
14 September 2012 Our 18th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 50th perfect 25-marker match.
28 September 2012 Our 180th participant joined.
02 October 2012 Our 51st perfect 25-marker match occurred.
12 December 2012 Our 52nd perfect 25-marker match occurred.
01 January 2013 We now have 185 participants, living in 11 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 172 Y-DNA test results on hand, 34 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 138 results fall into one of 20 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 40 matching test results.
The next largest groups are "Group 6", "Group 2" and "Group 8", with 13, 13 and 12 matching test results, respectively.
Globally, we have now found at least 52 genetically distinct Pike family lines.
In the British Isles, we have so far found 24 genetically different family lines.
02 April 2013 Our 19th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 53rd perfect 25-marker match.
10 April 2013 Our 54th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
17 April 2013 Our 20th perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 55th perfect 25-marker match.
19 April 2013 Our 56th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
2 May 2013 Our 57th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
2 July 2013 Our 58th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
23 July 2013 Our 59th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
20 September 2013 Our 60th perfect 25-marker match occurred.
5 October 2013 Our 21st perfect 37-marker match occurred. It's also our 61st perfect 25-marker match.
11 November 2013 Our third perfect 67-marker match occurred.
19 December 2013 Our fourth perfect 67-marker match occurred.
01 January 2014 We now have 198 participants, living in 11 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 189 Y-DNA test results on hand, 39 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 150 results fall into one of 20 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 40 matching test results.
The next largest groups are "Group 2", "Group 8" and "Group 6", with 15, 15 and 14 matching test results, respectively.
Globally, we have now found at least 53 genetically distinct Pike family lines.
In the British Isles, we have so far found 25 genetically different family lines.
18 January 2014 Our fifth perfect 67-marker match occurred.
20 April 2014 Our 200th participant joined.
14 May 2014 Our 62nd perfect 37-marker match occurred.
12 July 2014 Our 63rd perfect 37-marker match occurred.
16 August 2014 Our 64th perfect 37-marker match occurred.
01 January 2015 We now have 207 participants, living in 11 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 193 Y-DNA test results on hand, 40 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 153 results fall into one of 20 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 41 matching test results.
The next largest groups are "Group 2", "Group 6" and "Group 8", with 16, 15 and 15 matching test results, respectively.
Globally, we have now found at least 53 genetically distinct Pike family lines.
In the British Isles, we have so far found 25 genetically different family lines.
01 January 2016 We now have 213 participants, living in 11 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 200 Y-DNA test results on hand, 43 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 157 results fall into one of 20 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 43 matching test results.
The next largest groups are "Group 2", "Group 6" and "Group 8", with 17, 15 and 15 matching test results, respectively.
01 January 2017 We now have 222 participants, living in 13 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 208 Y-DNA test results on hand, 44 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 164 results fall into one of 21 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 43 matching test results.
The next largest groups are "Group 2", "Group 6" and "Group 8", with 19, 16 and 15 matching test results, respectively.
27 January 2017 Our first perfect 111-marker match occurred.
01 January 2018 We now have 231 participants, living in 13 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 226 Y-DNA test results on hand, 49 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 177 results fall into one of 21 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 43 matching test results.
The next largest groups are "Group 2", "Group 6" and "Group 8", with 21, 17 and 15 matching test results, respectively.
01 January 2019 We now have 246 participants, from 13 countries and distributed over 5 continents.
Of the 240 Y-DNA test results on hand, 53 have no genetic matches within our project.
The other 187 results fall into one of 23 groups of matching results.
The largest group is "Group 1", with 45 matching test results.
The next largest groups are "Group 2", "Group 6" and "Group 8", with 22, 17 and 16 matching test results, respectively.


Where can I find more information?

Family Tree DNA maintains its own FAQ that is found here.

The websites listed on the "Links" page have some useful information. The DNA-NEWBIE Forum sponsored by the International Society of Genetic Genealogy may also be helpful for people unfamiliar with the use of genetic testing as a genealogical tool. ISOGG also has a webpage with several Questions & Answers for Beginners and has a Wiki with additional information.

An informative article about genetic genealogy by Debbie Kennett appeared in the September 2008 issue of the Berkshire Family Historian. An expanded version of her article now appears online here.

An excellent book to read is "The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy" by Blaine Bettinger.


Last Modified: Friday, 04 January 2019, 20:47:01 NST